Types and components of computer systems
Identify internal hardware
Difference between System Software and Application Software
The way in which users communicate with the computer is called an 'interface'. The interface is what we use to give the computer commands. There are three types of operating system interfaces:
Graphics User Interface
Touch (Post WIMP)
Touch (Post WIMP)
This is where you pinch your fingers together across a touchscreen to zoom into an image, application or document on your device. You can also move your fingers apart to zoom out.
This is where you use two fingers - one finger moves up while the other finger moves down the touch screen to rotate an object.
Swiping is where you swipe your finger across the touchscreen to scroll through a document or turn the page.
What is a Device Driver?
A device driver is a small piece of system software that tells the operating system and other software how to communicate with a piece of hardware. For example, printer drivers tell the operating system, and by extension whatever program you have the thing you want to print open in, exactly how to print information on the page, Other examples of drivers are:
Sound card Driver.
What is a compiler?
A compiler is a program that translates a source program written in some high-level programming language (such as Java) into machine code for some computer architecture (such as the Intel Pentium architecture).
What are Utilities?
Utility programs, commonly referred to as just "utilities," are software programs that add functionality to your computer or help your computer perform better. These include antivirus, backup, disk repair, file management, security, and networking programs. Utilities can also be applications such as screensavers, font and icon tools, and desktop enhancements. Some utility programs help keep your computer free from unwanted software such as viruses or spyware, while others add functionality that allows you to customize your desktop and user interface.
Registry Cleaners, D
Disk Space analyzer,
RAM (Random Access Memory)
RAM is used to temporarily store information that is currently in use by the computer. This can include anything from word documents to videos.
ROM (Read Only Memory)
ROM is used to permanently store instructions that tell the computer how to boot (start up). It also loads the operating system (e.g. Windows).
Storage Devices (secondary backing storage)
Types of computer
Personal computers can be used as either:
Laptops are portable computers and are small enough to sit on your lap.
Tablets are small, hand-held, mobile computers that share a lot of the features of desktop PC's and laptops.
Some tablets also have slots for SIM cards (subscriber identity module) which allows the device to make phone calls just like on a mobile phone.
Using SIM cards can also give tablets the ability to access 3G and 4G and 5G technology. This allows the tablet to access the Internet even in areas without wireless networks.
The impact of emerging technologies.
AI (Artificial Intelligence.
This is a computer science that is focused on creating computer systems that simulate human intelligence.
The term was first used in 1956 by a computer scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) who was focused on trying to make computers behave like humans.
Game Playing -Computers developed to play games against human players.
Biometrics is where parts of a person's body are used for identification purposes.
All of these parts of the human body are unique from person to person and can be used to authenticate identity.
Note:Even identical twins have slightly different fingerprints and voices etc.
#Before biometric methods can be useful, people have to perform a process known as 'biometric enrolment'.
This is where body-part data such as fingerprints or voice patterns are captured and stored within the system so that they can be used to identify the person later on.
#Biometrics are beginning to be used in place of passwords and physical locks as a means of security.
Biometrics have advantages over these older methods as body parts cannot be lost, forgotten or stolen as can be the case with passwords and keys.
#Biometrics is still a very new technology and is not yet 100% accurate.
Robots are used to perform a wide range of physical tasks.
Dangerous jobs -E.g. disposing of bombs, spray painting or cleaning up nuclear waste.
Note: these are all jobs that could harm or kill a human.
Exploring extreme environments-E.g. inside volcanoes, planets or the depths of the ocean.
Note: humans cannot visit these environments due to lack of oxygen and high pressure / heat levels.
jobs - E.g. production lines, packing and welding etc.
Note: these jobs can also be performed by humans but robots can do them much faster and more efficiently.
Moving heavy objects -E.g. installing large engines, moving pallets of items etc.
Impact of robots
Quantum cryptography is different from traditional cryptographic systems in that it relies more on physics, rather than mathematics, as a key aspect of its security model.
Computer Assisted Translation
CAT software works by breaking the source text into smaller, translatable segments.